Water brands must label the content of the actual bottle, bottled water plastics must either have the letters, numbers or number symbols on the product labels.
HDP or HDPE: Plastic that practically releases no chemicals. Experts recommend choosing these bottled water plastics when buying bottled water because it is probably the healthiest water you can find on the market.
“HDPE plastic is the stiff plastic used to make milk jugs, detergent and oil bottles, toys, and some plastic bags. HDPE is the most commonly recycled plastic and is considered one of the safest forms of plastic. It is a relatively simple and cost-effective process to recycle HDPE plastic for secondary use.”
PETE or PET stands for single-use bottles. These bottles can possibly release heavy metals and chemicals that affect the hormonal balance.
“PET is one of the most commonly used plastics in consumer products, and is found in most bottled water plastics and pop bottles, and some packaging. It is intended for single use applications; repeated use increases the risk of leaching and bacterial growth. PET plastic is difficult to decontaminate, and proper cleaning requires harmful chemicals. Polyethylene terephthalates may leach carcinogens.”
3V or PVC releases 2 toxic chemicals that affect the hormones in your body but not commonly used in bottled water plastics.
“PVC is a soft, flexible plastic used to make clear plastic food wrapping, cooking oil bottles, teething rings, children’s and pets’ toys, and blister packaging for myriad consumer products. It is commonly used as the sheathing material for computer cables, and to make plastic pipes and parts for plumbing. Because PVC is relatively impervious to sunlight and weather, it is used to make window frames, garden hoses, arbors, raised beds and trellises.”
PC or non-labeled plastic
– the most dangerous plastic in the food production which releases BPA chemicals and it is often used in the production of sports water bottles and food containers.
This category was designed as a catch-all for polycarbonate (PC) and “other” plastics, so reuse and recycling protocols are not standardized within this category. Of primary concern with these plastics, however, is the potential for chemical leaching into food or drink products packaged in polycarbonate containers made using BPA (Bisphenol A). BPA is a xenoestrogen, a known endocrine disruptor.
PP: A white colored or semi transparent plastic, used as a packing for syrups and yogurt cups.
“Polypropylene plastic is tough and lightweight, and has excellent heat-resistance qualities. It serves as a barrier against moisture, grease and chemicals. When you try to open the thin plastic liner in a cereal box, it is polypropylene. This keeps your cereal dry and fresh. PP is also commonly used for disposable diapers, pails, plastic bottle tops, margarine and yogurt containers, potato chip bags, straws, packing tape and rope but not for bottled water plastics.”
So what is the safest?
Re-usable water bottles made of glass or stainless steel are easy to find and are not only the safest but they are the most friendly for the environment.
The fact is, much today’s crops are far lower in nutritional value than it was just 50 years ago because our soil is being depleted of essential vitamins and minerals.
This is sad and disturbing news. Even if you are eating an organic, healthy diet you may still be missing out on some minerals and vitamins. This is due to the efforts to increase yield at the expense of nutritional value along with the effects of industrialized farming practices have had on our soils.
According to a study in the NY Times:
Several studies of fruits, vegetables and grains have suggested a decline in nutritional value over time, but the reasons may not be as simple as soil depletion. There is considerable evidence that such problems may be related to changes in cultivated varieties, with some high-yielding plants being less nutritious than historical varieties. Several other issues are involved, like changes in farming methods, including the extensive use of chemical fertilizers, as well as food processing and preparation. A 2004 study evaluated Department of Agriculture data for 43 garden crops from 1950 to 1999. The researchers found statistically reliable declines for six nutrients — protein, calcium, potassium, iron and vitamins B2 and C.
Plants cultivated to produce higher yields tend to have less energy for other activities like growing deep roots and generating phytochemicals—health-promoting compounds like antioxidants—the report explains. And conventional farming methods, such as close plant spacing and the application of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, often cause crops to absorb fewer nutrients and have unhealthy root systems and less flavor, and sometimes make them more vulnerable to pests.
Now, some of the loss of nutritional value of crops can possibly be attributed to trade offs in nutritional value for crop yield and further studies are very much needed but it still an alarming trend.
That’s not to say that today’s fruits and vegetables have no nutritional value, far from it. As always include these in your diet and buy or grow organic when possible. Also reduce foods that contain sugars, are processed and include refined (white) flour.
Additional sources for the nutritional value of crops:
The foods that are best for lowering cholesterol contain high levels of vitamins E and C, beta carotene, and flavonoids. Many health experts recommend limiting cholesterol in you diet, but many of high-protein foods we love also contain excess cholesterol. How do you get the protein you need without going over your limit? All of the following foods are nutrient-rich, full of antioxidants, and help dramatically in lowering cholesterol.
Small red beans tops the list of antioxidant packed beans, with pinto and kidney beans close behind. Enjoy these beans in a simple red salad that includes cherry tomatoes and diced red onion.
Red and purple grapes are more potent than their green counterparts when it comes to antioxidants. Slice some up and add them to some raw organic plain yogurt to give it some natural sweetness.
Apples contain phytochemicals called polyphenols which make them a great source of antioxidants, but make sure you keep the skin on. The skin has a much higher dose of antioxidants than the flesh. Cut some up and mix it into your next bowl of steel cut oats.
With their high vitamin C content and phenolic compounds, plums offer us significant antioxidant protection. They’re great on their own, or mixed into a fruit salad for an added health boost.
Dark Chocolate and Cacao
Dark chocolate with at least 70% cacao content, and unsweetened cocoa powder a rich in antioxidants. Heating chocolate destroys some of it’s health benefits, so try blending some into your fruit smoothie (great with berry smoothies).
This nut is rich in vitamin E, an antioxidant that helps prevent cell damage. Best enjoyed raw as a snack, or as a crunchy topping to a spinach and strawberry salad.
Cholesterol is a steroid lipid (fat) found in the blood and is necessary for proper functioning of cell membranes. Talk with your doctor about maintaining healthy cholesterol levels and what others foods provide your with cholesterol that can do your body good!
Monsanto Sued By City of Spokane
The city of Spokane, Washington has hit corporate polluter Monsanto with a lawsuit claiming that they have polluted local waters in the Spokane River with chemicals from their pesticides. Other cities have joined in seeking compensation including San Diego and San Jose in California as well as Westport, Massachusetts.
Spokane claims: “Monsanto knew that PCBs would contaminate water supplies, would degrade marine habitats, would kill fish species, and would endanger birds and animals,” the complaint says. “In addition, Monsanto knew PCBs are associated with serious illnesses and cancers in humans and that humans may be exposed to PCBs” through eating or touching fish.
Toxic polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), once used in products ranging from fluorescent lights and appliances to insulation and insecticide, were banned in the late 1970s as carcinogens and general health hazards, though they linger in the environment.
Monsanto was the lone manufacturer of PCBs in the United States from 1935 to 1979, and the company concealed the toxicity from the municipality, city attorneys wrote in a complaint filed last week in U.S. District court.
“Despite Monsanto’s knowledge, Monsanto failed to provide adequate warnings that its PCBs would become a global contaminant and contaminate waterways and wildlife, such as Spokane’s stormwater and fish in the Spokane River,” city attorneys wrote.
The city of Spokane has a 2017 deadline to clean up the waters and stop pollutants from accessing the river. The clean up is expected to cost $300 million dollars. “Monsanto Sued” is a phrase being heard more and more as their agrochemicals have been the subject of negative press all over the world, with many European countries banning the chemicals all together.
Five Reasons Why You Should Put Butter in Your Coffee
Does the sound of adding butter to your daily cup of coffee sound strange to you? Well it shouldn’t if you are using unsalted grass fed butter, that is, butter from only grass fed cows.
Here are Five Reasons Why You Should Put Butter in Your Coffee: Most cows are corn or soy fed. It’s cheap and filling, but cows aren’t actually meant to eat that- they can’t even digest it properly- and their milk produces the kinds of fats you don’t want in your body. Grass-fed cows on the other hand commonly produce the best milk and beef, and the butter made from those cows is just as good.
1. Only grass-fed butter has the right fats that regulate cholesterol, not add to it. Grass-fed butter has the best ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids (which reduces body fat) and is a good source of vitamin K, both of which according to studies reduce the risk of heart disease.
2. It provides healthy fats for your brain and body to create cell membranes and hormones. The short-chain fatty acid Butyrate, once thought to be bad for you, has been linked to preventing neurodegenerative diseases, increased energy expenditure, and is also anti-inflammatory, further preventing heart disease.
3. Drinking it each morning puts your body in the routine to burn fat all day, helping you trim down overall. CLA (conjugated linoleic acid), found in grass-fed butter, has been shown to reduce body fat mass especially in overweight individuals.
4. “Bulletproof” coffee will give you energy as well as increase cognitive function that you can literally feel when it kicks in for about six hours- and without the crash. Mixed with more healthy fats from coconut oil, this amped up drink will help produce ketones,which are created when your body creates energy from fat rather than carbohydrates.
5. Two tablespoons of butter in your coffee is all you need to replace a breakfast meal altogether, making this a quick alternative for people on the go. Providing your body with essential fats and calories is a higher performance blend than a carbohydrate source like oatmeal.
When you blend it with coffee, what you get is the most pleasantly creamy drink that you can actually feel energizing your body.
Some great and readily available brands of grass fed butter include: Kerrygold, Organic Valley and Grass Fed Traditions.
Five Reasons Why You Should Put Butter in Your Coffee.
More info: http://www.realfarmacy.com/everyone-suddenly-putting-butter-coffee/
Is there anything coconut oil can’t do? Well we’ve found another great use and it’s a coconut oil cleanse! Besides the many proven benefits of coconut oil like boosting HDL (healthy cholesterol), losing body fat, better skin, helping brain function, increased energy and so on, you can give your body an occasional cleansing with 100% organic coconut oil. In doing so it can help get rid of fungal infections, parasites and viruses.
The basics of the coconut oil cleanse.
How to execute the coconut oil cleanse
A coconut oil cleanse consists of mixing coconut oil in warm water and drinking it from three to seven days.
During a coconut oil detox, you need to consume 10-14 tablespoons of coconut oil daily. Two tablespoons can be taken at 2-hour intervals throughout the day.
If you can’t tolerate the taste of coconut oil, blend it with some plain, organic, unflavored, unsweetened yogurt.
You can also eat no more than 4 ounces of fresh, non-dried, unsweetened coconut meat which is rich in fiber and nourishes the good bacteria in your gut.
Remember, if you have any medical conditions, consult your physician before trying a coconut oil cleanse.
Here are more benefits of coconut oil.
- Improve brain health and mental clarity
- Improve digestive function
- Improve blood sugar control
- Prevent and treat degenerative brain diseases (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, MS)
- Prevent cardiovascular disease (high blood pressure, heart attack, stroke)
- Prevent cancer
- Boost HDL (good) cholesterol
- Boost energy levels
- Boost immune function
- Lose excess body fat
- Improve thyroid function
- Improve skin tone and appearance
- Protect and restore joint function
- Balance intestinal flora
- Prevent and treat Crohn’s disease
- Protect against bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections
Turmeric As A Disease Treatment
Turmeric may be best known as a spice in your mom’s spice cabinet. It has been used for medical purposes in Asia and Indonesia for many centuries treating inflammation and as an anti-oxidant. By virtue of these effects, turmeric intake results in better health for the heart, brain and blood. And now studies are showing encouraging results using turmeric as a cancer treatment, a team of doctors at UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center found the while testing for it’s effects.
Curcumin, the main component in the spice turmeric, suppresses a cell signaling pathway that drives the growth of head and neck cancer, according to a pilot study using human saliva by researchers at UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center.
The inhibition of the cell signaling pathway also correlated with reduced expression of a number of pro-inflammatory cytokines, or signaling molecules, in the saliva that promote cancer growth, said Dr. Marilene Wang, a professor of head and neck surgery, Jonsson Cancer Center researcher and senior author of the study.
Make sure you find only high quality turmeric and ingest it as recommended. Turmeric should be take with food and is fat soluble, so refer to these 7 great recipes for ways to include it in your diet and to use Turmeric As A Disease Treatment.
UCLA caner study: http://www.cancer.ucla.edu/Index.aspx?page=644&recordid=507
Vitamins and Minerals Women Need To Take
Of course you eat healthy, using only fresh organic fruits and vegetables while avoiding fast food and fattening desserts. But how do you know you are getting everything your body needs from the supermarket? And what about supplements? Do you need to be taking them everyday as well?
As it turns out, women need different amounts of vitamins and minerals at various stages of life. According to studies, these are the vitamins and minerals women need to take.
According to the National Institutes of Health, more than half of American adults take at least one dietary supplement, most commonly a multivitamin. This is a good place to start if you think you are not getting all the nutrients you need from your diet. But keep in mind, dietary supplements are intended to supplement the diet, not to cure, prevent or treat diseases or replace the variety of foods important to a healthy diet.
Our nutritional needs change as we move through different stages of life, so consider a multivitamin targeted for women in your age group. It should contain B vitamins; vitamins A, C, D, E and K; and various minerals, such as calcium and magnesium. Also remember that to be fit and healthy, adjust your diet, as well as your vitamin and supplement intake, to meet the extra demands placed on your body and the vitamins and minerals women need to take.
19 to 30 Years of Age
Calcium builds strong bones, but is also important for healthy muscles, nerves and heart. Women should be careful to get enough calcium throughout life, but you want to build bone density in your 20s because the body will lose some of that bone in later years. The more you start with, the better off you are. You need 1,000 milligrams of calcium per day while you are in your 20s. Consider taking a calcium supplement if you don’t receive enough calcium from your diet through dairy products, calcium-fortified orange juice and cereals, beans, leafy greens, almonds and salmon.
Vitamin D, like calcium, is essential for bone health and may reduce the risk of some cancers and heart disease. It also promotes calcium absorption in the stomach and intestines. Good sources of vitamin D include salmon, tuna and fortified milk, juices and cereals. With the help of sunshine, most of the vitamin D we get is made in the skin. If you are almost always indoors and get little or no sunshine on your skin, however, you may need to consult your doctor or dietitian about your vitamin D needs. Online Table 1 shows the recommended daily allowances for calcium and vitamin D in women.
Recommended Dietary Allowances for Calcium and Vitamin D in Women Age (years) Calcium Vitamin D 19-30 1000 mg 600 IU 31-50 1000 mg 600 IU 51-70 1200 mg 600 IU 71+ 1200 mg 600 IU Source: Pharmacy Times
Iron helps increase the amount of red blood cells in the body and keep blood healthy. Women with heavy menstrual bleeding or pregnant women need more iron in their diets or may need an iron supplement. Too little iron may lead to anemia. Iron comes from animal sources (heme iron) and plant sources (nonheme iron). Heme iron (from animal sources) is better absorbed than iron from plant sources. However, the absorption of iron from plant sources can be improved when these foods are eaten in combination with foods rich in vitamin C (such as orange juice, strawberries or green, yellow or red peppers). Animal sources include meat, fish and eggs. Plant sources include nuts, seeds and dark leafy green vegetables. Women 19 to 50 years of age need 18 mg of iron daily, pregnant women need 27 mg of iron daily, and women 51 years and older need 8 mg every day. Definitely vitamins and minerals women need to take.
31 to 50 Years of Age
Magnesium is important throughout each stage of life because it supports hundreds of functions throughout the body, including tooth and bone formation, growth, physical and cognitive development and ensuring a healthy pregnancy. Magnesium is especially important for women older than 40 years, as it builds strong bones and prevents bone loss that may lead to osteoporosis. Magnesium may also help regulate blood pressure and blood sugar levels, reducing the risk of heart disease and diabetes. Legumes, nuts, seeds, whole grains, fortified cereals and leafy green vegetables (like spinach) are good sources of magnesium. See Online Table 2 for the recommended daily allowances for magnesium.
Recommended Dietary Allowances for Magnesium in Women Age (years) Magnesium Pregnancy Lactation 19-30 310 mg 350 mg 310 mg 31-50 320 mg 360 mg 320 mg 51+ 320 mg Source: Pharmacy Times
50 Years and Older
As you approach menopause, your body produces less estrogen, putting you at increased risk for heart disease, osteoporosis and other complications. To build and maintain healthy bones, weight-bearing and muscle strengthening exercises are important. In addition to exercise, be sure to get the recommended vitamins and minerals women need to take, which is 1,200 mg of calcium for women 50 years and older.
Vitamin D is necessary for the absorption of calcium and is the essential companion to calcium in maintaining strong bones. The recommended daily intake of vitamin D is 600 IU after age 50 years, increasing to 800 IU after age 70.
Fish oil, found in cold-water, oily fish — such as salmon, mackerel and sardines — is a rich source of the two essential omega-3 fatty acids: EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid). Studies indicate omega-3s may reduce the risk and symptoms of various disorders, including heart attack, stroke, some cancers and rheumatoid arthritis. The American Heart Association recommends eating fish, especially oily fish, at least two times each week as part of a heart-healthy diet. Although omega-3 supplements have not been shown to protect against heart disease, there is evidence that eating seafood has a variety of health benefits. If you cannot eat fish or choose to not do so, talk to your health care provider to see if a fish oil supplement is right for you.
Vitamin B12 helps your body make red blood cells and keeps the brain and nervous system healthy. This vitamin is found mostly in animal protein: meats, fish, dairy products and eggs. It can also be found in fortified breakfast cereals. As you get older, you can develop a reduced ability to absorb vitamin B12. If you become deficient, you may experience confusion, agitation or hallucinations. Almost all multivitamins contain vitamin B12. Supplements that contain only vitamin B12 or vitamin B12 in combination with other nutrients, as well as a prescription form that is administered as a shot, are also vitamins and minerals women need to take.
When deciding what vitamins and minerals women need to take, consult with your doctor before making any significant changes to your diet or health regimen. Same goes for women who are pregnant or breast feeding.
Essential Oils For Use Against Superbugs: Which oils kill Antibiotic resistant Bacteria?
You may have heard about this in the past, superbugs are created through antibiotic overuse, both by doctors who rely too heavily on antibiotics and by today’s modern industrial farming practices. There are in fact some essential oils that have the power to kill antibiotic resistant bacteria.
Lemongrass is widely used in Chinese and Thai cooking but it can also relieve aches and pains, as an insect repellent and and a bacteria killer.
The citral and limonene content in lemongrass oil can kill or stifle the growth of bacteria and fungi. This will help you avoid getting infections such as ringworm, athlete’s foot, or other types of fungus. Studies in rats have proved that lemongrass essential oil is an effective antifungal and antibacterial agent.
Additional research found that lemongrass oil could reduce MRSA.
A US study found tea-tree oil was a more effective treatment for staph-infected wounds than conventional treatments.
While many across the country are concerned about measles, which occurs in a largely vaccinated population and has caused no deaths, a larger threat wasn’t receiving proper attention: drug-resistant tuberculosis—and antibiotic-resistant “superbugs” in general. These infect at least two million Americans each year and kill 23,000, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).
These Essential Oils For Use Against Superbugs can help keep your family healthy year round without using potentially harmful over the counter or prescription drugs.
Nature has supplied thousands of alternative medicines and natural prescription antibiotics over millennia. Most people are unaware, however practically all pharmaceutical medications initially originated from the plants of the Earth. After they were shown effective in treating different ailments, the pharmaceutical industry then created synthetic variations which they might patent. In this method, they retained the special rights to earn earnings from their patents over a certain time period.
The point is that every medicine under the sun originated as an herb or a spice, a tree leaf or shrub root, a berry or a fruit. Fortunately, some of these very same medicinals work as really efficacious natural prescription antibiotics. Particularly when they are ready effectively, these potent medicines can produce the wanted results without many of the adverse side-effects related to pharmaceutical-grade antibiotics.
High-powered pharmaceutical antibiotics certainly have their place in today’s society. But the expansion of a lot of antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria (in addition to other infections) has actually called for a brand-new class of similar yet much more potent medications. There is a downside to many of these because they can leave residues within the human body which sometimes require an intentional process to get rid of or detoxify.
A Natural Antibiotic Approach can likewise Bring About a Real Solution
There are numerous diseases and diseases which do respond favorably to natural prescription antibiotics. Though the secret is to know which prescription antibiotics best address which disorders, along with which kinds of solutions are the most efficient. Obviously, the sooner one takes a natural antibiotic procedure, the greater the likelihood that they will effectively attend to the infection or inflammation.
There are several prospects that certify as relatively broad-spectrum natural prescription antibiotics. A few of these ought to belong to one’s diet plan also given that they provide a preventative procedure with each meal they are ingested with. Those that fit in this category are:
Garlic (look into thorough health benefits of garlic right here).
The essential oils of oregano, thyme, and basil have actually likewise proven to have strong anti-microbial properties. So have the oils of basil and lavender.
Oregano oil is specifically effective at dealing with infections within the GI system, and is considereded as a particularly powerful broad-spectrum natural antibiotic. Due to the fact that it is so powerful, it must be taken with the understanding that it can produce a recovery crisis from the germs die-off that it is known to trigger on event.
More info: Nature’s Antibiotics that Could Replace Pharmaceuticals.
Honey has been used for millennia to speed the process of recovery of the skin in addition to the mucous membranes of the GI tract. Manuka honey, in specific, appears to have very strong anti-bacterial qualities. Here is a comprehensive post describing the lots of other health advantages of honey.
“… clinical trials have actually found that Manuka honey works versus more than 250 stress of germs, including:.
MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus).
MSSA (methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus).
VRE (vancomycin-resistant enterococci).
Helicobacter Pylori (which can cause tummy ulcers)”  An experienced cook understands ways to present both garlic and turmeric into at least one dish a day. Likewise, ginger and honey can easily find their way into the diet regularly once their advantages are completely comprehended.
It should be noted that honey needs to never be prepared or warmed as doing so can produce toxins. Also, too much ginger can be drying for some, so one should use it appropriately. Nonetheless, numerous within the cooking world of the East use ginger every day for its powerful abilities to fend off sickness.
What are some other natural prescription antibiotics?
Pau d’Arco tea is another broad spectrum natural antibiotic which has especially strong anti-fungal properties. It can be fairly effective in dealing with candida albicans overgrowth in the intestinal tract. Pau d’arco originates from a tree bark in the South America jungle and high Andes which was observed to be abnormally resistant to many of the illness that typically take place in those climates.
Olive leaf extract is another powerful broad spectrum antibiotic alternative. As follows:.
“Early in the last century, oleuropein was isolated from olive leaf extract as this phytochemical was believed to provide the olive tree its resistance to condition. Researchers from the Netherlands then learned that elenolic acid, a part of oleuropein, worked as a broad spectrum natural antibiotic, which safely and strongly inhibits the development of not only bacteria, but also viruses and fungi.”  Grapefruit Seed Extract is another very popular anti-microbial that has actually been utilized often to deal with candida overgrowth, as well as a variety of bacterial infections. Lots of folks even utilize it as a safe yet reliable method to clean and sanitize their fruit and vegetables and other foods.
Additionally, lots of people have made use of the well-known echinacea and goldenseal herbal solution for years in dealing with colds and flus, sore throats and other upper respiratory ailments. Preparing their medicinal natural teas with raw, organic, unfiltered honey is another way of getting one of nature’s finest medical superfoods.
Colloidal Silver Occupies a Unique Place in Nature’s Apothecary.
“In the 1970’s, Dr. Robert O. Becker at Syracuse Medical University started to intensively research colloidal silver. He discovered that silver not only kills bacteria, however it actually eliminated bacteria that were resistant to all understood prescription antibiotics with no unfavorable negative effects.”  Colloidal silver can be applied topically in addition to taken inside. Nevertheless, long term internal use is not encouraged “since intake of colloidal silver does damage the fragile gut microbiome by killing beneficial germs though not as thoroughly as drug based prescription antibiotics.”  Summary List of 15 Natural Antibiotics.
Different essential oils such as oregano, thyme, basil, lavender, and more.
Olive leaf extract.
Grapefruit seed extract.
There are numerous exceptional natural prescription antibiotics which can be used by those who have proven to be allergic to pharmaceutical-grade antibiotics. These can likewise be used as the very first line of defense versus those seasonal conditions which require a fortified body immune system.
There are many different sources of infection, including bacterial, viral, parasitical, fungal, and more. Therefore, it is always a good idea to receive an educated viewpoint from a healthcare expert about the most likely source and seriousness of any infection. Consulting an herbalist, naturopath, or oesteopath about which selections are very well to make use of from nature’s pharmacopeia is recommended in any case.
Sources:. The 11 Best Natural Antibiotics and How to Use Them.